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Bacteriophage Host Range and Bacterial Resistance

Bacteriophage Host Range and Bacterial Resistance,10.1016/S0065-2164(10)70007-1,Advances in Applied Microbiology,Paul Hyman,Stephen T. Abedon

Bacteriophage Host Range and Bacterial Resistance   (Citations: 8)
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Host range describes the breadth of organisms a parasite is capable of infecting, with limits on host range stemming from parasite, host, or environmental characteristics. Parasites can adapt to overcome host or environmental limitations, while hosts can adapt to control the negative impact of parasites. We consider these adaptations as they occur among bacteriophages (phages) and their bacterial hosts, since they are significant to phage use as antibacterials (phage therapy) or to protection of industrial ferments from phage attack. Initially, we address how phage host range can (and should) be defined plus summarize claims of host ranges spanning multiple bacterial genera. Subsequently, we review bacterial mechanisms of phage resistance. These include adsorption resistance, which results in reduced interaction between phage and bacterium; what we describe as “restriction,” where bacteria live but phages die; and abortive infections, where both phage and bacterium die. Adsorption resistance includes loss of phage receptor molecules on hosts as well as physical barriers hiding receptor molecules (e.g., capsules). Restriction mechanisms include phage-genome uptake blocks, superinfection immunity, restriction modification, and CRISPR, all of which function postphage adsorption but prior to terminal phage takeover of host metabolism. Standard laboratory selection methods, involving exposure of planktonic bacteria to high phage densities, tend to directly select for these prehost-takeover resistance mechanisms. Alternatively, resistance mechanisms that do not prevent bacterium death are less readily artificially selected. Contrasting especially bacteria mutation to adsorption resistance, these latter mechanisms likely are an underappreciated avenue of bacterial resistance to phage attack.
Journal: Advances in Applied Microbiology - ADVAN APPL MICROBIOL , vol. 70, pp. 217-248, 2010
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    • ... Most bacteriophages do not extend their host range beyond a single bacterial genus, and host specificity likely offers a substantial impediment to the free exchange of genetic material between phages of different bacterial hosts ...

    Welkin H. Popeet al. Expanding the Diversity of Mycobacteriophages: Insights into Genome Ar...

    • ...These include when bacteria effect phage restrictive or abortive infections, which are phage-destructive infections that may be distinguished in terms of whether bacteria survive or don’t survive, respectively (Abedon 2008; Abedon et al. 2009; Hyman and Abedon 2010)...
    • ...A large fraction of this impact can be described as resulting from bacterial mechanisms of resistance to phages, e.g., restriction-modification systems as well as evolved abortive infection mechanisms (Hyman and Abedon 2010)...
    • ...Alternatively, some phages have been found which display fairly wide host ranges, spanning multiple bacterial genera (Hyman and Abedon 2010)...

    Stephen T. Abedon. Communication Among Phages, Bacteria, and Soil Environments

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