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Scaffolding and metacognition

Scaffolding and metacognition,10.1080/00207390500285818,International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology,Derek Holton,David C

Scaffolding and metacognition   (Citations: 16)
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This paper proposes an expanded conception of scaffolding with four key elements: i. scaffolding agency – expert, reciprocal, and self-scaffolding;ii. scaffolding domain – conceptual and heuristic scaffolding;iii. the identification of self-scaffolding with metacognition; andiv. the identification of six zones of scaffolding activity; each zone distinguished by the matter under construction and the relative positioning of the participant(s) in the act of scaffolding.These key elements are illustrated with empirical examples drawn from a variety of research studies. Scaffolding, thus conceived, brings together several theoretical domains, and by situating metacognition within a framework derived from the social activity of scaffolding, a bridge is formed between the instructional support a teacher might provide and the learner's self-control of the learning process. With regard to instruction and the role of the teacher, it is the authors’ contention that a major object of instruction is the progressive relocation of scaffolding agency in the direction of the learner with the long-term goal of equipping the learner to take control of their own learning.
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    • ...This new model incorporates authentic learning theory (Donovan et al. 1999 ;R ule2006 )i nto evolutionary scaffolding theory (Holton and Clarke 2006)...
    • ...Scaffolding consists of prompted content, materials, and tasks, as well as teacher and peer support, that are provided to assist the learner in a range of cognitive growth (Vygotsky 1978; Dickson et al. 1993; Holton and Clarke 2006)...
    • ...The evolutionary scaffolding theory progresses through three stages from expert to reciprocal to self-scaffolding where control moves from an external, instructor-centered process to an internal, student-centered process (Holton and Clarke 2006; Holton and Thomas 2001)...
    • ...This learning theory posits sequential and supportive constructive learning activities which assess both the current level of development and ultimate potential while creating critical, independent thinking (Holton and Clarke 2006)...
    • ...Self-scaffolding is the idea that instead of relying on the supervisor for growth and knowledge, the students take full control and rely on themselves to internally assess the ZPD and use appropriate scaffolds (Holton and Clarke 2006; Knouzi et al. 2010; Mascolo 2005)...
    • ...In this component of the theory, control of learning is mutual since the situation determines which individual is the expert and maintains the basic assumption that both student and supervisor can be experts (and learners) and therefore jointly bridge the ZPD (Doering and Veletsianos 2007; Holton and Clarke 2006; Holton and Thomas 2001; Seymour and Osana 2003)...
    • ...Holton and Clarke (2006) advocate an evolutionary approach to scaffolding that incorporates all three scaffolds...
    • ...While this may be a natural function of supervisor and human behavior, Holton and Clarke (2006) suggest that a better approach is to use all three scaffold categories with the goal of moving students from expert scaffolding to the self-scaffolding mode as shown in Table4...
    • ...Building from prior research in scaffolding (e.g., Ge and Land 2004; Holton and Thomas 2001; Reiser 2002; Reiser et al. 2001; Rosenshine and Meister 1994), Holton and Clarke (2006) describe how each scaffold provides a different function that can help in the development of learning...
    • ...If, during each rotation under evolutionary scaffolding, the genetic counseling supervisor begins with expert, moves to reciprocal, and finishes with self-scaffolds, such an approach will provide shelter in earlier periods and build confidence that leads to achievement throughout the process (e.g., Holton and Clarke 2006; Knouzi et al. 2010; Mascolo 2005)...
    • ...We suggest that in the clinical rotation process, the supervisor moves the student through the evolutionary scaffolding stages in which students evolve from expert to reciprocal to self-scaffolding and supervisors incorporate authentic learning experiences in every stage (e.g., Doering and Veletsianos 2007; Holton and Clarke 2006; Reiser 2002; Rule 2006)...
    • ...By using the outline to present the case to the supervisor, a mutual interaction with authentic learning situations in expert and reciprocal scaffolding provide evidence of the students’ critical and independent thinking skills (Holton and Clarke 2006)...
    • ...Through mutual learning and interaction and more student independence, they begin to build a bridge that will allow them to choose different scaffolds to create success and operate more critically and flexibly in different situations (e.g., Holton and Clarke 2006)...
    • ...With their tech skills, Millennial learners can identify resources that may be more obscure or have a different focus, so reciprocal scaffolding could involve a discussion of how those resources can be useful (e.g., Holton and Clarke 2006; Holton and Thomas 2001; Seymour and Osana 2003)...
    • ...Critical thinking is enhanced when genetic counselors provide increasingly complex authentic learning experiences (e.g., Holton and Clarke 2006; Lombardi and Oblinger 2007; Rule 2006) that provide both risk averse, safety-oriented and confident, special-oriented Millennial learners the means to achieve success...
    • ...Independent thinking is enhanced by moving Millennial learners each week from expert to selfscaffolding (Holton and Clarke 2006)...
    • ...For authentic learning theory, we suggest that not all authentic learning experiences are created equal (e.g., Bickhard 2005; Holton and Clarke 2006; Rule 2006)...

    Vickie L. Venneet al. Training the Millennial Learner Through Experiential Evolutionary Scaf...

    • ...Scaffolding has two main functions: the immediate intent to support knowledge construction, and the long term intent to develop heuristics to support future independent learning (Holton & Clarke, 2006)...

    Inge Molenaaret al. Attention management for dynamic and adaptive scaffolding

    • ...Wilson and Clarke (2004), for example, synthesised existing research with their own empirical work to formulate an elaborated model of mathematical metacognition, while Holton and Clarke (2006) proposed an expanded conception of scaffolding that identified metacognition with self-scaffolding...

    David Clarkeet al. Problem solving and Working Mathematically: an Australian perspective

    • ...Conversation scaffolds such as the beginning of a statement provided to the learners (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994) and protocols with message labels (Jeong & Joung, 2003) may constrain conversation and make learners more meta-cognitively aware of the interaction process (Holton & Clarke, 2002)...

    HONG GAOet al. A Review of Studies on Collaborative Concept Mapping: What Have We Lea...

    • ...Holton and Clarke (2006, p.131) define scaffolding as “an act of teaching that...
    • ...Holton and Clarke (2006) relate scaffolding in teaching to scaffolding in building construction...
    • ...• Can you explain your answer to the class or your group? • Is your answer reasonable? • Have you considered all the cases? (Holton & Clarke, 2006, p.139)...
    • ...If students are to learn to scaffold for themselves (using their meta-cognitive skills), they need to become aware of the scaffolding process (Holton & Clarke, 2006)...

    Theda Thomaset al. Embedding Critical Thinking in IS Curricula

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