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Progression on Nickelodeon? Gender-Role Stereotypes in Toy Commercials

Progression on Nickelodeon? Gender-Role Stereotypes in Toy Commercials,10.1007/s11199-009-9653-1,Sex Roles,Susan G. Kahlenberg,Michelle M. Hein

Progression on Nickelodeon? Gender-Role Stereotypes in Toy Commercials   (Citations: 3)
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A content analysis was conducted to examine gender-role stereotypes in toy commercials airing during the after-school hours in October, 2004, on the U.S. Nickelodeon network. The sample included 455 toy commercials, which were analyzed for the type of toy, number of identifiable boys and girls, gender portrayal, gender orientation, age of children, type of interaction, setting, and color of setting. The majority of girl and boy characters were featured in gender-specific toy commercials, and there were more identifiable girls than boys. Almost one-half of the characters were children (6-to-10-years old) who predominantly played indoors, in mixed colored settings, and engaged in cooperative play. Boys were more likely than girls to be shown outdoors and playing competitively.
Journal: Sex Roles , vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 830-847, 2010
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    • ...For instance, the medium most commonly featured is television (Desmond and Danilewicz 2010 ;F inger et al.2010; Hether and Murphy 2010; Kahlenberg and Hein 2010; Zhang et al. 2010), and the genre most commonly featured is entertainment (all studies but those by Desmond and Danilewicz 2010, who analyzed news programs, and Kahlenberg and Hein 2010, who analyzed advertisements)...
    • ...For instance, the medium most commonly featured is television (Desmond and Danilewicz 2010 ;F inger et al.2010; Hether and Murphy 2010; Kahlenberg and Hein 2010; Zhang et al. 2010), and the genre most commonly featured is entertainment (all studies but those by Desmond and Danilewicz 2010, who analyzed news programs, and Kahlenberg and Hein 2010, who analyzed advertisements)...
    • ...First of all, half of the articles investigated media whose content is not typically analyzed—video games (Downs and Smith 2010) and films (Gilpatric 2010; Neuendorf et al. 2010; Smith et al. 2010; Welsh 2010)—and the medium-genre combination with the highest incidence in this special issue is an uncommon one: entertainment films...
    • ...Smith et al. (2010) investigated substantially different content: top-grossing G-rated films...
    • ...As Downs and Smith (2010) did, Smith et al. (2010) relied on their theoretical perspective to guide their decisions about their sample (they selected top-grossing films to “ensure the sample featured films children are more likely to have in their media libraries and thus may have the most significant effect on...
    • ...Also, just as Smith focused on practical matters in her study with Downs (Downs and Smith 2010), in this study (Smith et al. 2010), she and her coauthors established criteria for determining practical significance of their statistical results and outlined the practical implications of their results for parents, researchers, and media professionals...
    • ...Smith et al. (2010) reported an additional statistic that content analysts do not often report: unitizing reliability...
    • ...(Problems with unitizing units of analysis may be similar to problems with unitizing units of observation and units of sampling; see, e.g., Neuendorf 2002.) Smith et al. (2010) acknowledged these potential problems with their study’s “speaking character” unit of analysis; they realized that coders could potentially disagree about the number of such characters that appeared in their sample of films...
    • ...Kahlenberg and Hein (2010) apparently share this view...

    Rena M. Rudyet al. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introducti...

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